Breed and Society History
Late 13th century
Cattle complying with the general description of the breed are numerous and Gloucestershire is already producing large quantities of high quality cheese.
The city of Gloucester has a thriving cattle market as well as a cheese and butter fair.
16th to early 18th centuries
Demand for Gloucester cheese continues to increase until well into the 18th century. It proves very popular in London and in the New England colonies in America.
Gloucester-type cattle are found from Devon and Glamorgan to Essex.
Mid 18th century
The pinnacle of Gloucestershire's fame as a dairy county is reached and the breed looks forward to a prosperous future, only to be confounded by a double disaster that made the Gloucester rare within fifty years.
The great rinderpest epidemic is only one of a series of 'cattle plagues', but this outbreak stands apart due to its severity and length. The disease arrives in Gloucestershire in 1748 and all markets are stopped.
The greatest effect of this national calamity is the reduction in cattle breeding on an unprecedented scale. Some areas turn completely to arable farming.
After previous epidemics, numbers slowly increased back to normal through natural increase, but this time there was an alternative - the Longhorn - which started to be bred widely, due to favourable pricing and its more beefy characteristics.
Sir Edward Jenner takes the first anti-smallpox serum from a Gloucester cow called 'Blossom', hence the word ‘vaccination’ from the Latin vacca: a cow.
Blossom’s hide was later given to St. George’s Hospital in London by Jenner’s family, where it is still preserved in the Medical School Library.
The first reference to the Gloucester breed as such is made in the records of the Badminton herd, probably the greatest Gloucester herd of all time.
The Gloucester Dairy School and the Gloucester Dairy Association are established following a three day National Cheese Conference in Gloucester.
The conference was called for by Dr. Francis Bond of Gloucester, who went on to achieve considerable success with his cheeses. Particularly successful were his 'Gloucester Roundels' that were, "designed...for the purpose of encouraging a large consumption of cheese, a too-much neglected article of diet, and also for promoting the special Gloucestershire industry of cheese-making."
Although the breed passes through a bottle neck of only two major breeders, after a successful sale at Badminton on 14th October 1896 there is a new wave of interest in the breed. This is the first significant sale for 44 years and several new herds are established as a result.
Publicity for the breed increases in the years following the Badminton sale and the Duke of Beaufort takes some Gloucesters to the 1909 Royal Show at Gloucester. The show succeeded in getting the breed official recognition.
After two major sales at Fretherne and Hardwicke, a whole new generation of enthusiastic Gloucester breeders emerges and the Gloucester Cattle Society is formed. The first herd book contains 130 animals in fourteen herds.
Numbers rise to over 300 animals in over 25 herds.
An outbreak of foot and mouth disease in Gloucestershire cuts short the promising growth of the last few years. The population reduces to 177 animals and continues to fall as the depression takes hold.
Only 142 animals remain in just 4 herds.
Gloucester Dairy School 1936 - butter is being churned on the left and Double Gloucester cheese is being made on the right.
The largest Gloucester herd, at Badminton, is dispersed after prolonged problems with in-breeding that had resulted in chronic infertility. Colonel Elwes' herd is also dispersed, leaving only 50 registered cows in just 2 herds.
A correspondent makes the sad observation that, "The Old Gloucestershire breed has been a-dying for so long that its very tenacity of life leads one to hope, against all the evidence, that it may eventually survive."
Having built his Ciceter herd up to 148 animals, The Honourable Ralph Bathurst dies.
Eric Dowdeswell maintained his old family herd at Wick Court until his death this year. His sisters, Ella and Alex, carry on the herd until their dispersal in 1972.
With the dispersal sale of the Wick Court herd, it is feared that the end of the beautiful breed is nigh. However, enthusiasts in rare breed conservation and Gloucestershire tradition and history gather and are able to save every breeding female from the Wick Court herd.
On the initiative of Charles Martell, a new Society of breeders is formed and the Herd Book is re-established with some 70 animals registered to about twenty breeders.
Classes for Gloucesters appear at the Three Counties Show for the first time at a major show for 38 years. They have been shown there ever since.
Twelve of the animals in the Bathurst herd of 1965 survive to be registered and appear in the re-formed Society's first Herd Book, printed this year.
Numbers rise to 165 registered animals.
This is a year of celebration - marking 75 years since the formation of the original Gloucester Cattle Society and 21 years since the society's reformation. A variety of activities is arranged during the year. Adam Stout's book, 'The Old Gloucester' is updated and reprinted. A special byre effect in cattle lines is created at the Three Counties Show by Clifford Freeman for an impressive turnout of show cattle. An exhibition of archive material in the Gloucester Folk Museum, including paintings and photographs, is brought together by Paul Weaver.
Although pedigree information had been computerised in the mid 1980's, a computer programme is now developed to access all pedigree and mismarking information back to 1973, providing valuable information for breeding decisions not previously available.
Crucial to breed's future, the branding and marketing of the high quality Old Gloucester Beef are initiated.
The first year of the new millennium sees Gloucesters enjoy probably their greatest numbers for 200 years, with over 700 registered females. Excellent show cattle demonstrate real improvements in breed type. Milking herds and cheese makers do well and the market for Old Gloucester Beef continues to grow steadily.
A national outbreak of foot and mouth disease threatens the breed again and Gloucester cattle breeders and Society members are desperately worried that all their hard work and commitment to building the breed back up might be destroyed. Although a number of herds are very close to outbreaks, only a few Gloucesters are lost and the breed is spared.
A new book is launched, "Tales of Gloucesters - the Rescue of a Cattle Breed", recording the history and progress the breed has made in the last quarter of the 20th century. Its launch at this difficult time emphasises the confidence that Gloucester Cattle Society members and supporters have for the future of the breed, in otherwise depressing farming circumstances.
Cattle Society represent breed at Terra Madre in Turin. Gloucester Cattle become presidium of ‘Slow Food’with beef and cheese
T.B takes its toll on breed
Ingenty DNA have been investigating DNA profiles on sample animals. Old Gloucester cattle placed as Category 3. vunerable
Sir Edward Jenner